Diabetes and Immunology
Diabetes is a disorder which can be caused due to many factors among them immunity is also one of the factors. The destruction of the islet β-cell in T1D is the result of a complex interplay between multiple players of both the innate and adaptive immune system; immunohistochemical analysis of islet inflammation from pancreata of patients with T1D obtained at autopsy indicate a mononuclear cell infiltrate in islets (termed insulitis) consisting mainly of macrophages, B cells and T cells. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are required for disease development, by destroying the insulin-producing β cells through the effector functions of Th1 cells and direct killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). CTLs initiate killing by various mechanisms including the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a and IFN-g, which act synergistically with IL-1 produced by macrophages in targeting the β-cells; they also directly kill β-cells through the secretion of perforin or by apoptosis by the activation of the Fas-Fas-L pathway.